# Lab Notes for a Scientific Revolution (Physics)

## March 30, 2008

### Revised Paper on Kaluza-Klein and Intrinsic Spin, Based on Spatial Isotropy

I have now prepared an updated revision of a paper demonstrating how the compact fifth dimension of Kaluza-Klein is responsible for the observed intrinsic spin of the charged leptons and their antiparticles.  The more global, underlying view, is that all intrinsic spins originate from motion through the curled up, compact $x^5$ dimension.  This latest draft is linked at:

Intrinsic Spin and the Kaluza-Klein Fifth Dimension, Rev 3.0

Thanks to some very helpful critique from Daryl M. on a thread at sci.physics.relativity, particularly post #2, I have entirely revamped section 5, which is the heart of the paper wherein we establish the existence of intrinsic spin in $x^5$, on the basis of “fitting” oscillations around a $4\pi$ loop of the compact fifth dimension (this is to maintain not only orientation but entanglement version).  From this approach, quantization of angular momentum in $x^5$ naturally emerges, it also emerges that the intrinsic $x^5$ angular momentum in the ground state is given by $(1/2) \hbar$.

In contrast to my earlier papers where I conjectured that the intrinsic spin in $x^5$ projects out into the three ordinary space dimensions by virtue of its orthogonal orientation relative to the $x^5$ plane, which was critiqued in several Usenet posts, I now have a much more direct explanation of how the intrinsic spin projects out of $x^5$ to where we observe it.

In particular, we recognize that one of the objections sometimes voiced with regards to a compactified fifth dimension is the question: how does one “bias” the vacuum toward one of four space dimensions, over the other three, by making that dimension compact?  This was at the root of some Usenet objections also raised earlier by DRL.

In this draft — and I think this will overcome many issues — we require that at least as regards intrinsic angular momentum, the square of the $J^5 = (1/2) \hbar$ obtained for the intrinsic angular momentum in $x^5$, must be isotropically shared by all four space dimensions.  That is, we require that there is to be no “bias” toward any of the four space dimensions insofar as squared intrinsic spin is concerned.  Because $J^5 = (1/2) \hbar$ emanates naturally from the five dimensional geometry, we know immediately that $\left(J^{5} \right)^{2} ={\textstyle\frac{1}{4}} \hbar ^{2}$, and then, by the isotropic requirement, that $\left(J^{1} \right)^{2} =\left(J^{2} \right)^{2} =\left(J^{3} \right)^{2} ={\textstyle\frac{1}{4}} \hbar ^{2}$ as well.  We then arrive directly at the Casimir operator $J^{2} =\left(J^{1} \right)^{2} +\left(J^{2} \right)^{2} +\left(J^{3} \right)^{2} ={\textstyle\frac{3}{4}} \hbar ^{2}$ in the usual three space dimensions, and from there, continue forward deductively.

For those who have followed this development right along, this means in the simplest terms, that rather than use “orthogonality” to get the intrinsic spin out of $x^5$ and into ordinary space, I am instead using “isotropy.”

There is also a new section 8 on positrons and Dirac’s equations which has not been posted before, and I have made other editorial changes throughout the rest of the paper.

## March 29, 2008

### Stepping Back from Kaluza-Klein: Planned Revisions

Those who have followed my Weblog are aware that I have been putting in a lot of work on Kaluza-Klein theory.  This post is to step back from the canvas, lay out the overall picture of what I am pursuing, and summarize what I plan at present to change or correct in the coming days and weeks.  This is in keeping with the concept of this Weblog as “Lab Notes,” or as a public “scientific diary.”

There are really two main aspects to this Kaluza-Klein work:

First, generally, I have found that 5-D Kaluza-Klein theory is most simply approached by starting with (classical) Lorentz force motion, and requiring the Lorentz force motion to be along the geodesics of the five dimensional geometry.  I am far from the first person who recognizes that the Lorentz force can be represented as geodesic motion in a 5-D model.  But I have found, by starting with the Lorentz force, and by requiring the 5-D electromagnetic field strength tensor to be fully antisymmetric, that all of the many “special assumptions” which are often employed in Kaluza-Klein theory energy very naturally on a completely deductive basis, with no further assumptions required.  I also believe that this approach leads to what are perhaps some new results, especially insofar as the Maxwell tensor is concerned, and insofar as QED may be considered in a non-linear context.   The latest draft of this global work on Kaluza-Klein may be seen at Kaluza-Klein Theory and Lorentz Force Geodesics.

Second, specifically, within this broader context, is the hypothesis that the fifth-dimensional “curled” motion is the direct mainspring of intrinsic spin.  More than anything else, the resistance by many physicists to Kaluza-Klein and higher-dimensional theories, rests on the simple fact that this fifth dimension — and any other higher dimensions — are thought to not be directly observable.  In simplest form, “too small” is the usual reason given for this.  Thus, if it should become possible to sustain the hypothesis that intrinsic spin is a directly-observable and universally-pervasive outgrowth of the fifth dimension, this would revitalize Kaluza-Klein as a legitimate and not accidental union of gravitation and electrodynamics, and at the same time lend credence to the higher-dimensional efforts also being undertaken by many researchers.  The latest draft paper developing with this specific line of inquiry is at Intrinsic Spin and the Kaluza-Klein Fifth Dimension.

Now, the general paper at Kaluza-Klein Theory and Lorentz Force Geodesics is very much a work in progress and there are things in this that I know need to be fixed or changed.  If you should review this, please keep in mind the following caveats:

First, sections 1-4 are superseded by the work at Intrinsic Spin and the Kaluza-Klein Fifth Dimension and have not been updated recently.

Second, sections 5-7 are still largely OK, with some minor changes envisioned.  Especially, I intend to derive the “restriction” $\Gamma^u_{55}=0$ from $F^{{\rm M} {\rm N} } =-F^{{\rm N} {\rm M} }$ rather than impose it as an ad hoc condition.

Third, sections 8-11 needs some reworking, and specifically: a) I want to start with an integration over the five-dimensional volume with a gravitational constant $G_{(5)}$ suited thereto, and relate this to the four dimensional integrals that are there at present; and b) I have serious misgivings about using a non-symmetric (torsion) energy tensor and am inclined to redevelop this to impose symmetry on the energy tensor — or at least to explore torsion versus no torsion in a way that might lead to an experimental test.  If we impose symmetry on the energy tensor, then the Maxwell tensor will be the $J^{\mu } =0$ special case of a broader tensor which includes a $J^\mu A^\nu + J^\nu A^\mu$ term and which applies, e.g., to energy flux densities (Poynting components) $T^{0k}$, k=1,2,3 for “waves” of large numbers of electrons.

Fourth, I am content with section 12, and expect it will survive the next draft largely intact.  Especially important is the covariant derivatives of the electrodynamic potentials being related to the ordinary derivatives of the gravitational potentials, which means that the way in which people often relate electrodynamic potentials to gravitational potentials in Kaluza-Klein theory is valid only in the linear approximation.  Importantly, this gives us a lever in the opposite direction, into non-linear electrodynamics.

Fifth, I expect the development of non-linear QED in section 13 to survive the next draft, but for the fact that the R=0 starting point will be removed as a consequence of my enforcing a symmetric energy tensor in sections 8-11.  Just take out all the “R=0” terms and leave the rest of the equation alone, and everything else is more or less intact.

Finally, the experiment in Section 15, if it stays, would be an experiment to test a symmetric, torsionless energy tensor against a non-symmetric energy tensor with torsion.  (Basically, metric theory versus Cartan theory.)  This is more of a “back of the envelope” section at present, but I do want to pursue specifying an experiment that will test the possible energy tensors which are available from variational principles via this Kaluza-Klein theory.

The paper at Intrinsic Spin and the Kaluza-Klein Fifth Dimension dealing specifically with the intrinsic spin hypothesis is also a work in progress, and at this time, I envision the following:

First, I will in a forthcoming draft explore positrons as well as electrons.  In compactified Kaluza-Klein, these exhibit opposite motions through $x^5$, and by developing the positron further, we can move from the Pauli spin matrices toward the Dirac $\gamma^\mu$ and Dirac’s equation.

Second, I have been engaged in some good discussion with my friend Daryl M. on a thread at sci.physics.relativity.  Though he believes I am “barking up the wrong tree,” he has provided a number of helpful comments, and especially at the bottom of post #2 where he discusses quantization in the fifth dimension using a wavelength $n \lambda = 2 \pi R$.  (I actually think that for fermions, one has to consider orientation / entanglement issues, and so to secure the correct “version,” one should use $n \lambda = 4 \pi R$ which introduces a factor of 2 which then can be turned into a half-integer spin.)  I am presently playing with some calculations based on this approach, which you will recognize as a throwback to the old Bohr models of the atom.

Third, this work of course uses $x^5 = R\phi$ to define the compact fifth dimension.  However, in obtaining $dx^5$, I have taken $R$ to be a fixed, constant radius.  In light of considering a wavelength $n \lambda = 4 \pi R$ per above, I believe it important to consider variations in $R$ rather than fixed $R$, and so, to employ $dx^5 = Rd\phi + \phi dR$.

There will likely be other changes along the way, but these are the ones which are most apparent to me at present.  I hope this gives you some perspective on where this “work in flux” is at, and where it may be headed.

Thanks for tuning in!

Jay.

## March 20, 2008

### Derivation of Heisenberg Uncertainty from Kaluza Klein Geometry

For those who have followed my Kaluza-Klein (KK) work, I believe that it is now possible to derive not only intrinsic spin, but Heisenberg uncertainty directly from a fifth, compactified dimension in Kaluza Klein.  This would put canonical quantum mechanics on a strictly Riemannian geometric foundation which — as a side benefit — unites gravitation and electromagnetism.

I need to consolidate over the next few days and will of course make a more expanded post when I am ready, but here is the basic outline.  First, take a look at:

Intrinsic Spin and the Kaluza-Klein Fifth Dimension

where I show how intrinsic spin is a consequence of the compactified fifth dimension.  This paper, at present, goes so far as to show how the Pauli spin matrices emerge from KK.

Next, go to the two page file:

Spin to Uncertainty

This shows how one can pop Heisenberg out of the spin matrices.

Finally, go to the latest draft paper on KK generally, at:

Kaluza-Klein Theory and Lorentz Force Geodesics with Non-linear QED

This lays out the full context in which I am developing this work.  Please note that the discussion on intrinsic spin in the third link is superseded by the discussion thereof in the first link.

More to follow . . .

Jay.

## March 6, 2008

### Electrodynamic Potentials and Non-Linear QED in Kaluza-Klein

I have now added new sections 12, 13 and 14 to the Kaluza-Klein paper earlier posted.  These sections examine the relationship between the electrodynamic potentials and the gravitational potentials, and the connection to QED.  You may view this all at:

Electrodynamic Potentials and Non-Linear QED

Most significantly, these three new sections not only connect to the QED Lagrangian, but, they show how the familiar QED Lagrangian density

${\rm L}_{QCD} =-A^{\beta } J_{\beta } -{\textstyle\frac{1}{4}} F^{\sigma \tau } F_{\sigma \tau }$

emerges in the linear approximation of 5-dimensional Kaluza-Klein gravitational theory.

Then, we go in the opposite direction, to show the QED Lagrangian density / action for non-linear theory, based on the full-blown apparatus of gravitational theory.

Expressed in terms of the electrodynamic field strength $F^{\sigma \tau }$ and currents $J_{\beta }$, this non-linear result is:

${\rm L}_{QCD} =0={\textstyle\frac{1}{8\kappa }} b\overline{\kappa }g^{5\beta } J_{\beta } -{\textstyle\frac{1}{4}} F^{\sigma \tau } F_{\sigma \tau } \approx -A^{\beta } J_{\beta } -{\textstyle\frac{1}{4}} F^{\sigma \tau } F_{\sigma \tau }$, (13.6)

where the approximation $\approx$ shows the connection to the linear approximation.  Re-expressed solely in terms of the fifth-dimensional gravitational metric tensor components $g_{5\sigma }$ and energy tensor source components $T_{\beta 5}$, this result is:

$\kappa {\rm L}_{QCD} =0={\textstyle\frac{1}{2}} g^{5\beta } \kappa T_{\beta 5} +{\textstyle\frac{1}{8}} g^{\sigma \alpha } \partial ^{\beta } g_{5\alpha } \left[\partial _{\sigma } g_{5\beta } -\partial _{\beta } g_{5\sigma } \right]$. (14.4)

You may also enjoy the derivations in section 12 which decompose the contravariant metric tensor into gravitons, photons, and the scalar trace of the graviton.

Again, if you have looked at earlier drafts, please focus on the new sections 12, 13 and 14.  Looking for constructive feedback, as always.

## March 3, 2008

### Intrinsic Spin and the Kaluza-Klein Fifth Dimension: Journal Submission

I mentioned several days ago that I had submitted a Kaluza Klein paper to one of the leading journals.  That lengthy paper was not accepted, and you can read the referee report and some of my comments here at sci.physics.foundations or here, with some other folks’ comments, at sci.physics.relativity.  The report actually was not too bad, concluding that “the author must have worked a considerable amount to learn quite a few thing in gravitation theory, and a number of the equations are correctly written and they do make sense, however those eqs. do not contain anything original.”  I would much rather hear this sort of objection, than be told — as I have been in the past — that I don’t know anything about the subject I am writing about.

In fact, there is one finding in the above-linked paper which, as I thought about it more and more, is quite original, yet I believe it was lost in the mass of this larger paper.  And, frankly, it took me a few days to catch on to the full import of this finding, and so I downplayed it in the earlier paper.  Namely:  that the compactified fifth dimension of Kaluza-Klein theories is the mainspring of the intrinsic spins which permeate particle physics.

I have now written and submitted for publication, a new paper which only includes that Kaluza-Klein material which is necessary to fully support this particular original finding.  You may read the submitted paper at Intrinsic Spin and the Kaluza-Klein Fifth Dimension.  I will, of course, let you know what comes from the review of this paper.

Jay.

## February 19, 2008

### Lab Note 2 Progress Report: Draft Paper on Kaluza-Klein Theory and Lorentz Force Geodesics

Hello to all my readers and contributors:

I have been very busy these past several days preparing my research on Kaluza-Klein five-dimensional theory into a formal paper.  I now have a draft paper sufficiently advanced, that I would like to share it with my readers and contributors for their comment.

I am not going to reproduce this directly on the blog as there are dozens of equations and the paper itself is already 25 pages.  However, I have linked a PDF copy of the latest draft below, for your perusal and comment.

Kaluza-Klein Theory and Lorentz Force Geodesics — 2-19-08 Draft

I know that there are literally dozens if not hundreds of Kaluza-Klein papers already out there in the world.  This one, I believe, is the one that actually describes how nature works, and how classical gravitation and electrodynamics actually do become united in nature.

Looking forward to your thoughts.

Jay.

## February 16, 2008

### Lab Note 2 Intermezzo: Change of View to a Spacelike Fifth Dimension, as the Geometric Foundation of Intrinsic Spin

(A PDF version of this Lab Note may be downloaded from Lab Note 2 Intermezzo.)

Those who have followed the development of this lab note know that I have been working with a Kaluza-Klein theory which regards the fifth dimension as timelike, rather than spacelike.  After reviewing some key literature in the field including a Sundrum Lecture recommended by Martin Bauer and several articles by Paul Wesson linked over at The 5-D Space-Time-Matter Consortium, I have undergone a conversion to the view that the fifth dimension needs to be spacelike – not timelike – and specifically, that it needs to be a compact, spacelike hypercylinder.  In this conversion, I am motivated by the following reasoning, which gives a geometric foundation to intrinsic spin:
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## February 14, 2008

### Lab Note 2, Part 3: Gravitational and Electrodynamic Potentials, the Electro-Gravitational Lagrangian, and a Possible Approach to Quantum Gravitation

Note:  You may obtain a PDF version of Lab Note 2, with parts 2 and 3 combined, at Lab Note 2, with parts 2 and 3.

Also Note: This Lab Note picks up where Lab Note 2, Part 2, left off, following section 7 thereof.  Equation numbers here, reference this earlier Lab Note.

8.  The Electrodynamic Potential as the Axial Component of the Gravitational Potential

Working from the relationship $F^{{\rm M} } _{{\rm T} } \propto 2\Gamma ^{{\rm M} } _{{\rm T} 5}$ which generalizes (5.4) to five dimensions, and recognizing that the field strength tensor $F^{\mu \nu }$ is related to the four-vector potential $A^{\mu } \equiv \left(\phi ,A_{1} ,A_{2} ,A_{3} \right)$ according to $F^{\mu \nu } =A^{\mu ;\nu } -A^{\nu ;\mu }$, let us now examine the relationship between $A^{\mu }$ and the metric tensor $g_{{\rm M} {\rm N} }$.  This is important for several reasons, one of which is that these are both fields and so should be compatible in some manner at the same differential order, and not the least of which is that the vector potential $A^{\mu }$ is necessary to establish the QED Lagrangian, and to thereby treat electromagnetism quantum-mechanically.  (See, e.g., Witten, E., Duality, Spacetime and Quantum Mechanics, Physics Today, May 1997, pg. 28.)

Starting with ${\tfrac{1}{2}} F^{{\rm M} } _{{\rm T} } \propto \Gamma ^{{\rm M} } _{{\rm T} 5}$, expanding the Christoffel connections $\Gamma ^{{\rm A} } _{{\rm B} {\rm N} } ={\tfrac{1}{2}} g^{{\rm A} \Sigma } \left(g_{\Sigma {\rm B} ,{\rm N} } +g_{{\rm N} \Sigma ,{\rm B} } -g_{{\rm B} {\rm N} ,\Sigma } \right)$, making use of $g^{{\rm M} {\rm N} } _{,5} =0$ which as shown in (6.5) is equivalent to $F^{{\rm M} {\rm N} } =-F^{{\rm N} {\rm M} }$, and using the symmetry of the metric tensor, we may write:

${\tfrac{1}{2}} F^{{\rm M} } _{{\rm T} } \propto \Gamma ^{{\rm M} } _{{\rm T} 5} ={\tfrac{1}{2}} g^{{\rm M} \Sigma } \left(g_{\Sigma {\rm T} ,5} +g_{5\Sigma ,{\rm T} } -g_{{\rm T} 5,\Sigma } \right)={\tfrac{1}{2}} g^{{\rm M} \Sigma } \left(g_{5\Sigma ,{\rm T} } -g_{5{\rm T} ,\Sigma } \right)$.  (8.1)

It is helpful to lower the indexes in field strength tensor and connect this to the covariant potentials $A_{\mu }$, generalized into 5-dimensions as $A_{{\rm M} }$, using $F_{\Sigma {\rm T} } \equiv A_{\Sigma ;{\rm T} } -A_{{\rm T} ;\Sigma }$, as such:

$A_{\Sigma ;{\rm T} } -A_{{\rm T} ;\Sigma } \equiv F_{\Sigma {\rm T} } =g_{\Sigma {\rm M} } F^{{\rm M} } _{{\rm T} } \propto g_{\Sigma {\rm M} } g^{{\rm M} {\rm A} } \left(g_{5{\rm A} ,{\rm T} } -g_{5{\rm T} ,{\rm A} } \right)=\left(g_{5\Sigma ,{\rm T} } -g_{5{\rm T} ,\Sigma } \right)$. (8.2)

The relationship $F_{\Sigma {\rm T} } \propto \left(g_{5\Sigma ,{\rm T} } -g_{5{\rm T} ,\Sigma } \right)$ expresses clearly, the antisymmetry of $F_{\Sigma {\rm T} }$ in terms of the remaining connection terms involving the gravitational potential.  Of particular interest, is that we may deduce from (8.2), the proportionality

$A_{\Sigma ;{\rm T} } \propto g_{5\Sigma ,{\rm T} }$. (8.3)

(If one forms $A_{\Sigma ;{\rm T} } -A_{{\rm T} ;\Sigma }$ from (8.3) and then renames indexes and uses $g_{{\rm M} {\rm N} } =g_{{\rm N} {\rm M} }$, one arrives back at (8.2).)  Further, we well know that $F_{\Sigma {\rm T} } =A_{\Sigma ;{\rm T} } -A_{{\rm T} ;\Sigma } =A_{\Sigma ,{\rm T} } -A_{{\rm T} ,\Sigma }$, i.e., that the covariant derivatives of the potentials cancel out so as to become ordinary derivatives when specifying $F_{\Sigma {\rm T} }$, i.e., that $F_{\Sigma {\rm T} }$ is invariant under the transformation $A_{\Sigma ;{\rm T} } \to A_{\Sigma ,{\rm T} }$.  Additionally, the Maxwell components (7.10) of the Einstein equation, are also invariant under $A_{\Sigma ;{\rm T} } \to A_{\Sigma ,{\rm T} }$, because (7.10) also employs only the field strength $F^{\sigma \mu }$.  Therefore, let is transform $A_{\Sigma ;{\rm T} } \to A_{\Sigma ,{\rm T} }$ in the above, then perform an ordinary integration and index renaming, to write:

$A_{{\rm M} } \propto g_{5{\rm M} }$. (8.4)

In the four spacetime dimensions, this means that the axial portion of the metric tensor is proportional to the vector potential, $g_{5\mu } \propto A_{\mu }$, and that the field strength tensor $F_{\Sigma {\rm T} }$ and the gravitational field equations $-\kappa T^{{\rm M} } _{{\rm N} } =R^{{\rm M} } _{{\rm N} } -{\tfrac{1}{2}} \delta ^{{\rm M} } _{{\rm N} } R$ are invariant under the transformation $A_{\Sigma ;{\rm T} } \to A_{\Sigma ,{\rm T} }$ used to arrive at (8.4).  We choose to set $A_{\Sigma ;{\rm T} } \to A_{\Sigma ,{\rm T} }$, and can thereby employ the integrated relationship (8.4) in lieu of the differential equation (8.3), with no impact at all on the electromagnetic field strength or the gravitational field equations, which are invariant with respect to this choice.

9.  Unification of the Gravitational and QED Lagrangians

The Lagrangian density for a gravitational field in vacuo is ${\rm L}_{gravitation} =\sqrt{-g} R$, where g is the metric tensor determinant and $R=g^{\mu \nu } R_{\mu \nu }$ is the Ricci tensor.  Let us now examine a Lagrangian based upon the 5-dimensional Ricci scalar, which we specify by:

${\rm R} \equiv R^{\Sigma } _{\Sigma } =R^{\sigma } _{\sigma } +R^{5} _{5} =R+R^{5} _{5}$. (9.1)
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