# Lab Notes for a Scientific Revolution (Physics)

## May 7, 2009

### Inferring Electrodynamic Gauge Theory from General Coordinate Invariance

I am presently working on a paper to show how electrodynamic gauge theory can be directly connected to generally-covariant gravitational theory.  In essence, we show how there is a naturally occurring gauge parameter in gravitational gemometrodynamics which can be directly connected with the gauge parameter used in electrodynamics, while at the same time local gauge transformations acting on fermion wavefunctions may be synonymously described as general coordinate transformations acting on those same fermion wavefunctions.

Inferring Electrodynamic Gauge Theory from General Coordinate Invariance

If you check out sci.physics.foundations and sci.physics.research, you will see the rather busy path which I have taken over the last month to go from baryons and confinement to studying the Heisenberg equation of motion and Ehrenfest’s theorem, to realizing that there was an issue of interest in the way that Fourier kernels behave under general coordinate transformations given that a general coordinate x^u is not itself a generally-covariant four vector.  Each step was a “drilling down” to get at underlying foundational issues, and this paper arrives at the most basic, fundamental underlying level.

Jay

## April 13, 2008

### Lab Note 5: The Central Role in Physics, of the Dirac Anticommutator g^uv=(1/2){gamma^u,gamma^v}

Filed under: General Relativity,Gravitation,Physics,Science — Jay R. Yablon @ 11:38 pm

I would like to take a break from my current work on Kaluza-Klein, and focus on the central importance to physics of the Dirac anticommutator relationship $\eta ^{\mu \nu } \equiv {\tfrac{1}{2}} \left(\gamma ^{\mu } \gamma ^{\nu } +\gamma ^{\nu } \gamma ^{\mu } \right)\equiv {\tfrac{1}{2}} \left\{\gamma ^{\mu } ,\gamma ^{\nu } \right\}$, when generalized to a non-zero gravitational field in the form $g^{\mu \nu } \equiv{\tfrac{1}{2}} \left\{\Gamma ^{\mu } \Gamma ^{\nu } +\Gamma ^{\nu } \Gamma ^{\mu } \right\}\equiv {\tfrac{1}{2}} \left\{\Gamma ^{\mu } ,\Gamma ^{\nu } \right\}$.  In particular, when $g^{\mu \nu } \ne \eta ^{\mu \nu }$ but rather include a gravitational field $g^{\mu \nu } (x)=\eta ^{\mu \nu } +\kappa h^{\mu \nu } (x)$, then also the $\Gamma ^{\mu } \ne \gamma ^{\mu }$, but rather include a “square root” gravitational field $h^{\mu } (x)$ which may be defined as $\Gamma ^{\mu } (x)\equiv \gamma ^{\mu } +\kappa h^{\mu } (x)$.  Combining all the foregoing, this means that $\kappa h^{\mu \nu } \equiv {\tfrac{1}{2}} \kappa \left[h^{\mu } \gamma ^{\nu } +\gamma ^{\mu } h^{\nu } +h^{\nu } \gamma ^{\mu } +\gamma ^{\nu } h^{\mu } \right]+{\tfrac{1}{2}} \kappa ^{2} \left[h^{\mu } h^{\nu } +h^{\nu } h^{\mu } \right]$.

We also note that in perturbation theory, non-divergent perturbative effects are, in the end, captured in a correction to the vertex factor given by $\overline{{\rm u}}(p)\gamma ^{\mu } {\rm u(p)}\to \overline{{\rm u}}(p)\left(\gamma ^{\mu } +\Lambda ^{\mu } \right){\rm u(p)}$ operating on a Dirac spinor ${\rm u(p)}$.  That is, the bare vertex $\gamma ^{\mu }$ becomes the dressed vertex $\gamma ^{\mu } +\Lambda ^{\mu }$.  By then associating the perturbative $\Lambda ^{\mu }$ with $\kappa h^{\mu }$ just specified,  we raise the possibility that gravitational and perturbative descriptions of nature may in some way be interchangeable.  More to the point: when we consider perturbative effects in particle physics, we may well be considering gravitational effects without knowing that this is what we are doing.  The inestimable benefit of gravitational theory over  perturbation theory is that it is non-linear and exact.  The inestimable benefit of perturbation theory over gravitational theory is that we know something about how to achieve its renormalization.  Perhaps by developing this link further via the vitally-central physical relationship $g^{\mu \nu } \equiv {\tfrac{1}{2}} \left\{\Gamma ^{\mu } ,\Gamma ^{\nu } \right\}$, we can infuse the exact, non-linear character of gravitational theory into perturbation theory, and the renormalizability of perturbation theory into gravitational theory.  Recognizing that “Lab Notes” is in the nature of a scientific diary, this, in any event, is the starting point for this lab note.

Now, there are two main directions in which to exploit the connection $g^{\mu \nu } \equiv {\tfrac{1}{2}} \left\{\Gamma ^{\mu } ,\Gamma ^{\nu } \right\}$, and both need to be considered.  First, we may start with the metric tensor $g_{\mu \nu }$ from a known, exact solution to Einstein’s equation, calculate its associated $\Gamma ^{\mu }$, and then employ $\Gamma ^{\mu }$ in the Dirac equation, in the form $0=\left(\Gamma ^{\mu } \left(i\partial _{\mu } +eA_{\mu } \right)-m\right)\psi$.  Using the Schwarzschild solution as the basis, I have done this in detail, in a paper linked at Magnetic Moment Anomalies of the Charged Leptons.  If you would like an “Executive Summary” of this paper, you may obtain this at What the Magnetic Moment Anomaly May Tell Us About Planck-Scale Physics.  What is especially noteworthy, is that the magnetic moment anomaly can perhaps be understood as a symptom of gravitational effects near the Planck scale.

I actually wrote the above detailed paper in September, 2006, but never posted it anywhere, because as soon as it was written, I went off into writing the related ArXiV paper at http://arxiv.org/abs/hep-ph/0610377 titled Ward-Takahashi Identities, Magnetic Anomalies, and the Anticommutation Properties of the Fermion-Boson Vertex.  This paper illustrates the second direction in which to exploit the connection $g^{\mu \nu } \equiv {\tfrac{1}{2}} \left\{\Gamma ^{\mu } ,\Gamma ^{\nu } \right\}$.  Here, we start with a known $\Gamma ^{\mu }$, then use $g^{\mu \nu } \equiv {\tfrac{1}{2}} \left\{\Gamma ^{\mu } ,\Gamma ^{\nu } \right\}$  to obtain the associated $g^{\mu \nu }$, and then use this as a metric tensor in the usual way.  In this paper, in particular, we start with the perturbative vertex factor $\Gamma ^{\mu } \equiv \gamma ^{\mu } +\Lambda ^{\mu } =F_{1} \gamma ^{\mu } +{\tfrac{1}{2}} F_{2} i\sigma ^{\mu \nu } (p'-p)_{\nu }$ from equation (11.3.29) of Weinberg’s definitive treatise The Quantum Theory of Fields, then we calculate the anticommutators $g^{\mu \nu } \equiv {\tfrac{1}{2}} \left\{\Gamma ^{\mu } ,\Gamma ^{\nu } \right\}$, and then we use the $g^{\mu \nu }$ as a metric tensor.  What is fascinating about this approach, is that the $\Gamma ^{\mu } (p_{\mu } )$ are specified in momentum space, rather than spacetime.  This means that $g^{\mu \nu } =g^{\mu \nu } (p_{\mu } )$ deduced therefrom define a non-Euclidean momentum space, rather than a non-Euclidean spacetime.  This may open up a whole new branch of physics dealing with — I’ll say it again — Non-Euclidean Momentum Space.  As we know from Heisenberg, spacetime is conjugate to momentum space, $\left[x^{\mu } ,p^{\nu } \right]=i\hbar \delta ^{i\mu \nu }$.  The central result of this paper, arrived at via the Ward-Takahashi Identities which are central to renormalization, is that interaction vertexes are a measure of curvature in momentum space, and the strength of the interaction at a vertex is proportional to the momentum space curvature, see Figures 1 and 2.  This may place particle physics onto a firm geometric footing, but rooted in the geometry of momentum space.

What I have not yet gotten to, is the question of how to use $\left[x^{\mu } ,p^{\nu } \right]=i\hbar \delta ^{i\mu \nu }$, as between a non-Eclidean spacetime and a non-Euclidean momentum space,  because in the real world, we have both.  That is a project for the remaining free time in my day, between 3AM and 5AM.  😉

As always, these are lab notes, representing “work in progress.”  I welcome comments and contributions, as always.

Jay.

### Thesis Defense of the Kaluza-Klein, Intrinsic Spin Hypothesis — EARLY DRAFT

I have been engaged in a number of Usenet and private discussions about the paper Intrinsic Spin and the Kaluza-Klein Fifth Dimension, Rev 3.0 which I posted here on this blog on March 30.

A number of critiques have been raised, which you can see if you check out the recent Usenet threads I started related to intrinsic spin under the heading “Query about intrinsic verus [sic] orbital angular momentum,” over at sci.physics.foundations, sci.physics.relativity and sci.physics.research. These are among the “links of interest” provided in the right-hand pane of this weblog.

I believe that these critiques can be overcome, and that this hypothesis relating to Kaluza-Klein and intrinsic spin and the spatial isotropy of the square of the spin will survive and be demonstrated, ultimately, to be in accord with the physical reality of nature.

I have begun a new paper which is linked at: Thesis Defense of the Kaluza-Klein, Intrinsic Spin Hypothesis, Rev 1.0, which will respond thoroughly and systematically to the various critiques.  What is here so far is the introductory groundwork.  But, I would appreciate continued feedback as this development continues.

Note that the links within the PDF file unfortunately do not work, so to get the intrinsic spin paper, you need to go to Intrinsic Spin and the Kaluza-Klein Fifth Dimension, Rev 3.0.  Also, to get Wheeler’s paper which is referenced, go to Wheeler Geometrodynamics.

## March 30, 2008

### Revised Paper on Kaluza-Klein and Intrinsic Spin, Based on Spatial Isotropy

I have now prepared an updated revision of a paper demonstrating how the compact fifth dimension of Kaluza-Klein is responsible for the observed intrinsic spin of the charged leptons and their antiparticles.  The more global, underlying view, is that all intrinsic spins originate from motion through the curled up, compact $x^5$ dimension.  This latest draft is linked at:

Intrinsic Spin and the Kaluza-Klein Fifth Dimension, Rev 3.0

Thanks to some very helpful critique from Daryl M. on a thread at sci.physics.relativity, particularly post #2, I have entirely revamped section 5, which is the heart of the paper wherein we establish the existence of intrinsic spin in $x^5$, on the basis of “fitting” oscillations around a $4\pi$ loop of the compact fifth dimension (this is to maintain not only orientation but entanglement version).  From this approach, quantization of angular momentum in $x^5$ naturally emerges, it also emerges that the intrinsic $x^5$ angular momentum in the ground state is given by $(1/2) \hbar$.

In contrast to my earlier papers where I conjectured that the intrinsic spin in $x^5$ projects out into the three ordinary space dimensions by virtue of its orthogonal orientation relative to the $x^5$ plane, which was critiqued in several Usenet posts, I now have a much more direct explanation of how the intrinsic spin projects out of $x^5$ to where we observe it.

In particular, we recognize that one of the objections sometimes voiced with regards to a compactified fifth dimension is the question: how does one “bias” the vacuum toward one of four space dimensions, over the other three, by making that dimension compact?  This was at the root of some Usenet objections also raised earlier by DRL.

In this draft — and I think this will overcome many issues — we require that at least as regards intrinsic angular momentum, the square of the $J^5 = (1/2) \hbar$ obtained for the intrinsic angular momentum in $x^5$, must be isotropically shared by all four space dimensions.  That is, we require that there is to be no “bias” toward any of the four space dimensions insofar as squared intrinsic spin is concerned.  Because $J^5 = (1/2) \hbar$ emanates naturally from the five dimensional geometry, we know immediately that $\left(J^{5} \right)^{2} ={\textstyle\frac{1}{4}} \hbar ^{2}$, and then, by the isotropic requirement, that $\left(J^{1} \right)^{2} =\left(J^{2} \right)^{2} =\left(J^{3} \right)^{2} ={\textstyle\frac{1}{4}} \hbar ^{2}$ as well.  We then arrive directly at the Casimir operator $J^{2} =\left(J^{1} \right)^{2} +\left(J^{2} \right)^{2} +\left(J^{3} \right)^{2} ={\textstyle\frac{3}{4}} \hbar ^{2}$ in the usual three space dimensions, and from there, continue forward deductively.

For those who have followed this development right along, this means in the simplest terms, that rather than use “orthogonality” to get the intrinsic spin out of $x^5$ and into ordinary space, I am instead using “isotropy.”

There is also a new section 8 on positrons and Dirac’s equations which has not been posted before, and I have made other editorial changes throughout the rest of the paper.

## March 29, 2008

### Stepping Back from Kaluza-Klein: Planned Revisions

Those who have followed my Weblog are aware that I have been putting in a lot of work on Kaluza-Klein theory.  This post is to step back from the canvas, lay out the overall picture of what I am pursuing, and summarize what I plan at present to change or correct in the coming days and weeks.  This is in keeping with the concept of this Weblog as “Lab Notes,” or as a public “scientific diary.”

There are really two main aspects to this Kaluza-Klein work:

First, generally, I have found that 5-D Kaluza-Klein theory is most simply approached by starting with (classical) Lorentz force motion, and requiring the Lorentz force motion to be along the geodesics of the five dimensional geometry.  I am far from the first person who recognizes that the Lorentz force can be represented as geodesic motion in a 5-D model.  But I have found, by starting with the Lorentz force, and by requiring the 5-D electromagnetic field strength tensor to be fully antisymmetric, that all of the many “special assumptions” which are often employed in Kaluza-Klein theory energy very naturally on a completely deductive basis, with no further assumptions required.  I also believe that this approach leads to what are perhaps some new results, especially insofar as the Maxwell tensor is concerned, and insofar as QED may be considered in a non-linear context.   The latest draft of this global work on Kaluza-Klein may be seen at Kaluza-Klein Theory and Lorentz Force Geodesics.

Second, specifically, within this broader context, is the hypothesis that the fifth-dimensional “curled” motion is the direct mainspring of intrinsic spin.  More than anything else, the resistance by many physicists to Kaluza-Klein and higher-dimensional theories, rests on the simple fact that this fifth dimension — and any other higher dimensions — are thought to not be directly observable.  In simplest form, “too small” is the usual reason given for this.  Thus, if it should become possible to sustain the hypothesis that intrinsic spin is a directly-observable and universally-pervasive outgrowth of the fifth dimension, this would revitalize Kaluza-Klein as a legitimate and not accidental union of gravitation and electrodynamics, and at the same time lend credence to the higher-dimensional efforts also being undertaken by many researchers.  The latest draft paper developing with this specific line of inquiry is at Intrinsic Spin and the Kaluza-Klein Fifth Dimension.

Now, the general paper at Kaluza-Klein Theory and Lorentz Force Geodesics is very much a work in progress and there are things in this that I know need to be fixed or changed.  If you should review this, please keep in mind the following caveats:

First, sections 1-4 are superseded by the work at Intrinsic Spin and the Kaluza-Klein Fifth Dimension and have not been updated recently.

Second, sections 5-7 are still largely OK, with some minor changes envisioned.  Especially, I intend to derive the “restriction” $\Gamma^u_{55}=0$ from $F^{{\rm M} {\rm N} } =-F^{{\rm N} {\rm M} }$ rather than impose it as an ad hoc condition.

Third, sections 8-11 needs some reworking, and specifically: a) I want to start with an integration over the five-dimensional volume with a gravitational constant $G_{(5)}$ suited thereto, and relate this to the four dimensional integrals that are there at present; and b) I have serious misgivings about using a non-symmetric (torsion) energy tensor and am inclined to redevelop this to impose symmetry on the energy tensor — or at least to explore torsion versus no torsion in a way that might lead to an experimental test.  If we impose symmetry on the energy tensor, then the Maxwell tensor will be the $J^{\mu } =0$ special case of a broader tensor which includes a $J^\mu A^\nu + J^\nu A^\mu$ term and which applies, e.g., to energy flux densities (Poynting components) $T^{0k}$, k=1,2,3 for “waves” of large numbers of electrons.

Fourth, I am content with section 12, and expect it will survive the next draft largely intact.  Especially important is the covariant derivatives of the electrodynamic potentials being related to the ordinary derivatives of the gravitational potentials, which means that the way in which people often relate electrodynamic potentials to gravitational potentials in Kaluza-Klein theory is valid only in the linear approximation.  Importantly, this gives us a lever in the opposite direction, into non-linear electrodynamics.

Fifth, I expect the development of non-linear QED in section 13 to survive the next draft, but for the fact that the R=0 starting point will be removed as a consequence of my enforcing a symmetric energy tensor in sections 8-11.  Just take out all the “R=0” terms and leave the rest of the equation alone, and everything else is more or less intact.

Finally, the experiment in Section 15, if it stays, would be an experiment to test a symmetric, torsionless energy tensor against a non-symmetric energy tensor with torsion.  (Basically, metric theory versus Cartan theory.)  This is more of a “back of the envelope” section at present, but I do want to pursue specifying an experiment that will test the possible energy tensors which are available from variational principles via this Kaluza-Klein theory.

The paper at Intrinsic Spin and the Kaluza-Klein Fifth Dimension dealing specifically with the intrinsic spin hypothesis is also a work in progress, and at this time, I envision the following:

First, I will in a forthcoming draft explore positrons as well as electrons.  In compactified Kaluza-Klein, these exhibit opposite motions through $x^5$, and by developing the positron further, we can move from the Pauli spin matrices toward the Dirac $\gamma^\mu$ and Dirac’s equation.

Second, I have been engaged in some good discussion with my friend Daryl M. on a thread at sci.physics.relativity.  Though he believes I am “barking up the wrong tree,” he has provided a number of helpful comments, and especially at the bottom of post #2 where he discusses quantization in the fifth dimension using a wavelength $n \lambda = 2 \pi R$.  (I actually think that for fermions, one has to consider orientation / entanglement issues, and so to secure the correct “version,” one should use $n \lambda = 4 \pi R$ which introduces a factor of 2 which then can be turned into a half-integer spin.)  I am presently playing with some calculations based on this approach, which you will recognize as a throwback to the old Bohr models of the atom.

Third, this work of course uses $x^5 = R\phi$ to define the compact fifth dimension.  However, in obtaining $dx^5$, I have taken $R$ to be a fixed, constant radius.  In light of considering a wavelength $n \lambda = 4 \pi R$ per above, I believe it important to consider variations in $R$ rather than fixed $R$, and so, to employ $dx^5 = Rd\phi + \phi dR$.

There will likely be other changes along the way, but these are the ones which are most apparent to me at present.  I hope this gives you some perspective on where this “work in flux” is at, and where it may be headed.

Thanks for tuning in!

Jay.

## March 6, 2008

### Electrodynamic Potentials and Non-Linear QED in Kaluza-Klein

I have now added new sections 12, 13 and 14 to the Kaluza-Klein paper earlier posted.  These sections examine the relationship between the electrodynamic potentials and the gravitational potentials, and the connection to QED.  You may view this all at:

Electrodynamic Potentials and Non-Linear QED

Most significantly, these three new sections not only connect to the QED Lagrangian, but, they show how the familiar QED Lagrangian density

${\rm L}_{QCD} =-A^{\beta } J_{\beta } -{\textstyle\frac{1}{4}} F^{\sigma \tau } F_{\sigma \tau }$

emerges in the linear approximation of 5-dimensional Kaluza-Klein gravitational theory.

Then, we go in the opposite direction, to show the QED Lagrangian density / action for non-linear theory, based on the full-blown apparatus of gravitational theory.

Expressed in terms of the electrodynamic field strength $F^{\sigma \tau }$ and currents $J_{\beta }$, this non-linear result is:

${\rm L}_{QCD} =0={\textstyle\frac{1}{8\kappa }} b\overline{\kappa }g^{5\beta } J_{\beta } -{\textstyle\frac{1}{4}} F^{\sigma \tau } F_{\sigma \tau } \approx -A^{\beta } J_{\beta } -{\textstyle\frac{1}{4}} F^{\sigma \tau } F_{\sigma \tau }$, (13.6)

where the approximation $\approx$ shows the connection to the linear approximation.  Re-expressed solely in terms of the fifth-dimensional gravitational metric tensor components $g_{5\sigma }$ and energy tensor source components $T_{\beta 5}$, this result is:

$\kappa {\rm L}_{QCD} =0={\textstyle\frac{1}{2}} g^{5\beta } \kappa T_{\beta 5} +{\textstyle\frac{1}{8}} g^{\sigma \alpha } \partial ^{\beta } g_{5\alpha } \left[\partial _{\sigma } g_{5\beta } -\partial _{\beta } g_{5\sigma } \right]$. (14.4)

You may also enjoy the derivations in section 12 which decompose the contravariant metric tensor into gravitons, photons, and the scalar trace of the graviton.

Again, if you have looked at earlier drafts, please focus on the new sections 12, 13 and 14.  Looking for constructive feedback, as always.

## March 3, 2008

### Intrinsic Spin and the Kaluza-Klein Fifth Dimension: Journal Submission

I mentioned several days ago that I had submitted a Kaluza Klein paper to one of the leading journals.  That lengthy paper was not accepted, and you can read the referee report and some of my comments here at sci.physics.foundations or here, with some other folks’ comments, at sci.physics.relativity.  The report actually was not too bad, concluding that “the author must have worked a considerable amount to learn quite a few thing in gravitation theory, and a number of the equations are correctly written and they do make sense, however those eqs. do not contain anything original.”  I would much rather hear this sort of objection, than be told — as I have been in the past — that I don’t know anything about the subject I am writing about.

In fact, there is one finding in the above-linked paper which, as I thought about it more and more, is quite original, yet I believe it was lost in the mass of this larger paper.  And, frankly, it took me a few days to catch on to the full import of this finding, and so I downplayed it in the earlier paper.  Namely:  that the compactified fifth dimension of Kaluza-Klein theories is the mainspring of the intrinsic spins which permeate particle physics.

I have now written and submitted for publication, a new paper which only includes that Kaluza-Klein material which is necessary to fully support this particular original finding.  You may read the submitted paper at Intrinsic Spin and the Kaluza-Klein Fifth Dimension.  I will, of course, let you know what comes from the review of this paper.

Jay.

## February 29, 2008

### Lab Note 2: Why the Compactified, Cylindrical Fifth Dimension in Kaluza Klein Theory may be the “Intrinsic Spin” Dimension

FOR SOME REASON, THESE EQUATIONS APPEAR CORRUPTED. I AM CHECKING WITH WORDPRESS TECHNICAL SUPPORT AND HOPE TO HAVE THIS FIXED IN THE NEAR FUTURE — JAY.

I am posting here a further excerpt from my paper at Kaluza-Klein Theory, Lorentz Force Geodesics and the Maxwell Tensor with QED. Notwithstanding some good discussion at sci.physics.relativity, I am coming to believe that the intrinsic spin interpreation of the compacified, hypercylindrical fifth dimension presented in section 4 of this paper may be compelling. The math isn’t too hard, and you can follow it below: The starting point for discussion equation is (3.2) below,

$frac{dx^{5} }{dtau } equiv -frac{1}{b} frac{sqrt{hbar calpha } }{sqrt{G} m} =-frac{1}{b} frac{1}{sqrt{4pi G} } frac{q}{m}$. (3.2)

which is used to connect the $q/m$ ratio from the Lorentz law to geodesic motion in five dimensions, and $b$ is a numeric constant of proportionality. Section 4 below picks up from this.

Excerpt from Section 4:

Transforming into an “at rest” frame, $dx^{1} =dx^{2} =dx^{3} =0$, the spacetime metric equation $d/tau ^{2} =g_{/mu /nu } dx^{/mu } dx^{/nu }$ reduces to $dtau =pm sqrt{g_{00} } dx^{0}$, and (3.2) becomes:

$frac{dx^{5} }{dx^{0} } =pm frac{1}{b} sqrt{frac{g_{00} }{4pi G} } frac{q}{m}$. (4.1)

For a timelike fifth dimension, $x^{5}$ may be drawn as a second axis orthogonal to $x^{0}$, and the physics ratio $q/m$ (which, by the way, results in the $q/m$ material body in an electromagnetic field actually “feeling” a Newtonian force in the sense of $F=ma$ due to the inequivalence of electrical and inertial mass) measures the “angle” at which the material body moves through the $x^{5} ,x^{0}$ “time plane.”

For a spacelikefifth dimension, where one may wish to employ a compactified, hyper-cylindrical $x^{5} equiv Rphi$ (see [Sundrum, R., TASI 2004 Lectures: To the Fifth Dimension and Back, http://arxiv.org/abs/hep-th/0508134 (2005).], Figure 1) and $R$ is a constant radius (distinguish from the Ricci scalar by context), $dx^{5} equiv Rdphi$. Substituting this into (3.2), leaving in the $pm$ ratio obtained in (4.1), and inserting $c$ into the first term to maintain a dimensionless equation, then yields:

$frac{Rdphi }{cdtau } =pm frac{1}{b} frac{sqrt{hbar calpha } }{sqrt{G} m} =pm frac{1}{b} frac{1}{sqrt{4pi G} } frac{q}{m}$. (4.2)

We see that here, the physics ratio $q/m$ measures an “angular frequency” of fifth-dimensional rotation. Interestingly, this frequency runs inversely to the mass, and by classical principles, this means that the angular momentum with fixed radius is independent of the mass, i.e., constant. If one doubles the mass, one halves the tangential velocity, and if the radius stays constant, then so too does the angular momentum. Together with the $pm$ factor, one might suspect that this constant angular momentum is, by virtue of its constancy independently of mass, related to intrinsic spin. In fact, following this line of thought, one can arrive at an exact expression for the compactification radius $R$, in the following manner:

Assume that $x^{5}$ is spacelike, casting one’s lot with the preponderance of those who study Kaluza-Klein theory. In (4.2), move the $c$ away from the first term and move the $m$ over to the first term. Then, multiply all terms by another $R$. Everything is now dimensioned as an angular momentum $mcdot vcdot R$, which we have just ascertained is constant irrespective of mass. So, set this all to $pm {textstylefrac{1}{2}} nhbar$, which for $n=1$, represents intrinsic spin. The result is as follows:

$mfrac{Rdphi }{dtau } R=pm frac{1}{b} frac{sqrt{hbar c^{3} alpha } }{sqrt{G} } R=pm frac{1}{b} frac{c}{sqrt{4pi G} } qR=pm frac{1}{2} nhbar$. (4.3)

Now, take the second and fourth terms, and solve for $R$ with $n=1$, to yield:

$R=frac{b}{2sqrt{alpha } } sqrt{frac{Ghbar }{c^{3} } } =frac{b}{2sqrt{alpha } } L_{P}$, (4.4)

where $L_{P} =sqrt{Ghbar /c^{3} }$ is the Planck length. This gives a definitive size for the compactification radius, and it is very close to the Planck length. (more…)

## February 27, 2008

### Lab Note 2: Derivation of the Maxwell Stress-Energy Tensor from Five-Dimensional Geometry, using a Four-Dimensional Variation

FOR SOME REASON, THESE EQUATIONS APPEAR CORRUPTED.  I AM CHECKING WITH WORDPRESS TECHNICAL SUPPORT AND HOPE TO HAVE THIS FIXED IN THE NEAR FUTURE. FOR NOW, PLEASE USE THE LINK IN THE FIRST PARAGRAPH, AND GO TO SECTION 10 — JAY.

As mentioned previously, I have been able to rigorously derive the Maxwell tensor from a five dimensional Kaluza-Klein geometry based on Lorentz force geodesics, using a variational principle over the four spacetime dimensions of our common experience.  At the link: Kaluza-Klein Theory, Lorentz Force Geodesics and the Maxwell Tensor with QED, I have attached a complete version of this paper, which includes connections to quantum theory as well as an extensive summary not included in the version of the paper now being refereed at one of the leading journals.  This is a strategic decision not to overload the referee, but to focus on the mathematical results, the most important of which is this derivation of the Maxwell tensor.

Because this paper is rather large, I have decided on this weblog, to post section 10, where this central derivation occurs.  Mind you, there are nine sections which lay the foundation for this, but with the material below, plus the above link, those who are interested can see how this all fits together.  The key result emerges in equation (10.15) below.  Enjoy!

Excerpt: Section 10 — Derivation of the Maxwell Stress-Energy Tensor, using a Four-Dimensional Variation

In section 8, we derived the energy tensor based on the variational calculation (8.4), in five dimensions, i.e., by the variation $delta g^{{rm M} {rm N} }$.  Let us repeat this same calculation, but in a slightly different way.

In section 8, we used (8.3) in the form of ${rm L}_{Matter} =-{textstylefrac{1}{8kappa }} boverline{kappa }g^{5{rm B} } J_{{rm B} } =-{textstylefrac{1}{8kappa }} boverline{kappa }g^{{rm M} {rm N} } delta ^{5} _{{rm M} } J_{{rm N} }$, because that gave us a contravariant $g^{{rm M} {rm N} }$ against which to obtain the five-dimensional variation $delta {rm L}_{Matter} /delta g^{{rm M} {rm N} }$.  Let us instead, here, use the very last term in (8.3) as ${rm L}_{Matter}$, writing this as:

${rm L}_{Matter} equiv {textstylefrac{1}{2kappa }} R^{5} _{5} =-{textstylefrac{1}{8kappa }} boverline{kappa }left(g^{5beta } J_{beta } +{textstylefrac{1}{4}} g^{55} boverline{kappa }F^{sigma tau } F_{sigma tau } right)=-{textstylefrac{1}{8kappa }} boverline{kappa }left(g^{mu nu } delta ^{5} _{nu } J_{mu } +{textstylefrac{1}{4}} g^{55} g^{mu nu } boverline{kappa }F_{mu } ^{tau } F_{nu tau } right)$. (10.1)

It is important to observe that the term $g^{5beta } J_{beta }$ is only summed over four spacetime indexes.  The fifth term, $g^{55} J_{5} ={textstylefrac{1}{4}} g^{55} boverline{kappa }F^{sigma tau } F_{sigma tau }$, see, e.g., (6.8).  For consistency with the non-symmetric (9.5), we employ $g^{5beta } J_{beta } =g^{mu nu } delta ^{5} _{nu } J_{mu }$ rather than $g^{5beta } J_{beta } =g^{mu nu } delta ^{5} _{mu } J_{nu }$.  By virtue of this separation, in which we can only introduce $g^{mu nu }$ and not $g^{{rm M} {rm N} }$ as in section 8, we can only take a four-dimensional variation $delta {rm L}_{Matter} /delta g^{mu nu }$, which, in contrast to (8.4), is now given by:

$T_{mu nu } equiv -frac{2}{sqrt{-g} } frac{partial left(sqrt{-g} {rm L}_{Matter} right)}{delta g^{mu nu } } =-2frac{delta {rm L}_{Matter} }{delta g^{mu nu } } +g_{mu nu } {rm L}_{Matter}$. (10.2)

Substituting from (10.1) then yields:

$T_{mu nu } ={textstylefrac{1}{4kappa }} boverline{kappa }left(delta ^{5} _{nu } J_{mu } +{textstylefrac{1}{4}} g^{55} boverline{kappa }F_{mu } ^{tau } F_{nu tau } right)-{textstylefrac{1}{2}} g_{mu nu } {textstylefrac{1}{4kappa }} boverline{kappa }left(g^{5beta } J_{beta } +{textstylefrac{1}{4}} g^{55} boverline{kappa }F^{sigma tau } F_{sigma tau } right)$. (10.3)

Now, the non-symmetry of sections 8 and 9 comes into play, and this will yield the Maxwell tensor.  Because $delta ^{5} _{nu } =0$, the first term drops out and the above reduces to:

$kappa T_{mu nu } ={textstylefrac{1}{4}} boverline{kappa }left({textstylefrac{1}{4}} g^{55} boverline{kappa }F_{mu } ^{tau } F_{nu tau } right)-{textstylefrac{1}{2}} g_{mu nu } {textstylefrac{1}{4}} boverline{kappa }left(g^{5beta } J_{beta } +{textstylefrac{1}{4}} g^{55} boverline{kappa }F^{sigma tau } F_{sigma tau } right)$. (10.4)

Note that this four-dimensional tensor is symmetric, and that we would arrive at an energy tensor which is identical if (10.3) contained a $delta ^{5} _{mu } J_{nu }$ rather than $delta ^{5} _{nu } J_{mu }$.  One again, the screen factor $delta ^{5} _{nu } =0$ is at work.

In mixed form, starting from (10.3), there are two energy tensors to be found.  If we raise the $mu$ index in (10.3), the first term becomes $delta ^{5} _{nu } J^{mu } =0$ and we obtain:

$-kappa T^{mu } _{nu } =-{textstylefrac{1}{4}} boverline{kappa }left({textstylefrac{1}{4}} g^{55} boverline{kappa }F^{mu tau } F_{nu tau } right)+{textstylefrac{1}{2}} delta ^{mu } _{nu } {textstylefrac{1}{4}} boverline{kappa }left(g^{5beta } J_{beta } +{textstylefrac{1}{4}} g^{55} boverline{kappa }F^{sigma tau } F_{sigma tau } right)$. (10.5)

with this first term still screened out.  However, if we transpose (10.3) and then raise the $mu$ index, the first term becomes $g^{5mu } J_{nu }$ and this term does not drop out, i.e.,

$-kappa T_{nu } ^{mu } =-{textstylefrac{1}{4}} boverline{kappa }left(g^{5mu } J_{nu } +{textstylefrac{1}{4}} g^{55} boverline{kappa }F^{mu tau } F_{nu tau } right)+{textstylefrac{1}{2}} delta ^{mu } _{nu } {textstylefrac{1}{4}} boverline{kappa }left(g^{5beta } J_{beta } +{textstylefrac{1}{4}} g^{55} boverline{kappa }F^{sigma tau } F_{sigma tau } right)$. (10.6)

So, there are two mixed tensors to consider, and this time, unlike in section 8, these each yield different four-dimensional energy tensors.  Contrasting (10.5) and (10.6), we see that $delta ^{5} _{nu } =0$ has effectively “broken” a symmetry that is apparent in (10.6), but “hidden” in (10.5).  At this time, we focus on (10.5), because, as we shall now see, this is the Maxwell stress-energy tensor $T^{mu } _{nu } =-left(F^{mu tau } F_{nu tau } -{textstylefrac{1}{4}} delta ^{mu } _{nu } F^{sigma tau } F_{sigma tau } right)$, before reduction into this more-recognizable form.
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## February 25, 2008

### Lab Note 2 Term Paper: Kaluza-Klein Theory and Lorentz Force Geodesics . . . and the Maxwell Tensor

Dear Friends:

I have just today completed a paper titled “Kaluza-Klein Theory and Lorentz Force Geodesics,” which I have linked below:

I have also submitted the draft linked above, to one of the leading physics journals for consideration for publication.

One of the things I have been beating my head against the wall over these past few weeks, is to deduce the Maxwell stress-energy tensor from the 5-dimensional geometry using Einstein’s equation including its scalar trace.  I finally got the proof nailed down this morning, and that is section 10 of the paper linked above.

I respectfully submit that the formal derivation of the Maxwell stress-energy tensor in section 10, provides firm support for the Spacetime-Matter (STM) viewpoint that our physical universe is a five-dimensional Kaluza-Klein geometry in which the phenomenon we observe in four dimensions are “induced” out of the fifth dimension, and that it supports the correctness of the complete line of development in this paper.  Section 10 — as the saying goes — is the “clincher.”

As is apparent to those who have followed the development of this particular “Lab Note,” my approach is to postulate the Lorentz force, and require that this be geodesic motion in 5-dimensions.  Everything else follows from there.  The final push to the Maxwell tensor in section 10, rests on adopting and implementing the STM viewpoint, and applying a 4-dimensional variational principle in a five-dimensional geometry.  If you have a serious interest in this subject, in addition to my paper, please take a look at The 5D Space-Time-Matter Consortium.

Best to all,

Jay.

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