Lab Notes for a Scientific Revolution (Physics)

November 30, 2013

The Yang-Mills Mass Gap Solution


I have been a bit behind with this blog, but wanted to let you know that I have pulled together many of the various threads I have posted over the past several years into a complete solution to the Yang-Mills and Mass Gap Problem, which paper is here:

The Yang-Mills Mass Gap Solution.

The Mass Gap problem was specified back in 2000 by Arthur Jaffe and Edward Witten at

This problem really has four aspects, which are as follows: 1) the mass gap itself, 2) QCD confinement, 3) chiral symmetry breaking and 4)  proof of the existence of a relativistic quantum Yang-Mills field theory in four-dimensional spacetime.  Each of these is respectively presented in sections 10, 11, 12 and 13 of this paper.

You can read the paper abstract, so I will not repeat it here.  But I will also be delivering an oral presentation of this work at the April 2014 APS meeting in Savannah, Georgia.  Yesterday, I submitted the abstract for that presentation, which is below:

APS Abstract: The Yang-Mills Mass Gap problem is solved by deriving SU(3)C Chromodynamics as a corollary theory from Yang-Mills gauge theory.  The mass gap is filled from the finite non-zero eigenvalues of a configuration space inverse perturbative tensor containing vacuum excitations.  This results from carefully developing six equivalent views of Yang-Mills gauge theory as having: 1) non-commuting (non-Abelian) gauge fields; 2) gauge fields with non-linear self-interactions; 3) a “steroidal” minimal coupling; 4) perturbations; 5) curvature in the gauge space of connections; and 6) gauge fields related to their source currents through an infinite recursive nesting.  Based on combining the Yang-Mills electric and magnetic source field equations into a single equation, confinement results from showing how the magnetic monopoles of Yang-Mills gauge theory exhibit color confinement and meson flow and have all the required color symmetries of baryons, from which we conclude that they are one and the same as baryons.  Chiral symmetry breaking results from the recursive behavior of these monopoles coupled with a view of the Dirac gamma matrices as Hamiltonian quaternions extended into spacetime.  Finally, with the aid of the “steroidal” view, the recursive view of Yang-Mills enables polynomial gauge field terms in the Yang-Mills action to be stripped out and replaced by polynomial source current terms prior to path integration.  This enables an exact analytical calculation of a non-linear path integral using a closed recursive kernel and yields a non-linear quantum amplitude also with a closed recursive kernel, thus proving the existence of a non-trivial relativistic quantum Yang–Mills field theory on R4 for any simple gauge group G.

I am of course interested in any comments you may have.


June 15, 2013

Slides from my first Physics Lecture, and a New Draft Paper Summarizing the Experimental Points of Contact which Affirm my Work

This past week I gave my first physics lecture on the research in my recent four published papers establishing that proton and neutrons are actually a particular type of magnetic monopole (based on a theory called Yang-Mills because those are the names of the two fellows who invented its foundations).  In the lecture, I consolidated all four of my papers totaling about 140 pages into a 70 minute lecture (50 minutes talk, 20 minutes Q&A discussion) and 64 slides which you can download from Physics Lecture Slides.

It would probably take someone a couple of weeks to read through and thoroughly understand my four papers.   The slides were designed to allow someone to assimilate the same information within a couple of hours.  Please take a look.

Also, I prepared a new paper which you may read at Fitting the 2H, 3H, 3He, 4H Binding Energies 3  which in ten pages lays out the multiple relationships I have found which very clearly connect to experimental data that had never before been explained.  This is the “tip of the iceberg” in terms of the multiple ways in which nature herself validates my theoretical work at the parts-per-million level.   My hope is that people in the physics community will see these results, realize that there is something real here, and then take the time to backtrack to understand the theoretical foundations that got me to that point.  A sort of “inversion” of my work to lead with the experimental results in order to catalyze interest.  Everything in this paper by the way, is simple arithmetic (as in, numbers calculated and compared to other numbers), and about the only complexity is that you need to understand a tiny bit about matrix multiplication (like that the “Trace” of a square matrix is just the sum of all the entries long its upper left to lower right diagonal).  If you do not want to even sort through the matrix stuff, then just look at equations (14) through (20).  These are pure numbers, and you will see how close I get to the experimental data each and every time.  Nobody has ever before explained this experimental data with such high precision!

People, I am usually careful not to toot too loudly about my work.  But I have to say that this is real, it is fundamental, and it will revolutionize nuclear and particle theory.  The question is no longer if, but when.  The discoveries have been made and they are in print and all they need is attention from the right places.  My “lab notes” and related work will soon spark a “scientific revolution” toward which I have been working for over 40 years.  Real results in hand, I am now doing all that I can to make that happen sooner rather than later.  I welcome any help or support my friends can provide in making that happen.


May 4, 2013

My four recent peer-reviewed papers about Magnetic Monopole Baryons are now all published and online

I wanted to let you know that my recent second, third and fourth peer-reviewed papers were all published on April 30.  These papers, in order of logical development, are:
2)  J. Yablon, “Predicting the Binding Energies of the 1s Nuclides with High Precision, Based on Baryons which Are Yang-Mills Magnetic Monopoles,” Journal of Modern Physics, Vol. 4 No. 4A, 2013, pp. 70-93. doi: 10.4236/jmp.2013.44A010.
3)  J. Yablon, “Grand Unified SU(8) Gauge Theory Based on Baryons which Are Yang-Mills Magnetic Monopoles,” Journal of Modern Physics, Vol. 4 No. 4A, 2013, pp. 94-120. doi: 10.4236/jmp.2013.44A011.
4)  J. Yablon, “Predicting the Neutron and Proton Masses Based on Baryons which Are Yang-Mills Magnetic Monopoles and Koide Mass Triplets,” Journal of Modern Physics, Vol. 4 No. 4A, 2013, pp. 127-150. doi: 10.4236/jmp.2013.44A013.
The “Special issue on High Energy Physics” in which the foregoing all appear is at:
Also, the very first paper in which is is all rooted was published a couple of months ago, but finally went online about ten days ago.  This paper may be downloaded at:
1)  Yablon, J. R., Why Baryons Are Yang-Mills Magnetic Monopoles, Hadronic Journal, Volume 35, Number 4, 401-468 (2012)
If you want to quickly understand the original paper #1, which is 67 pages, I suggest that you start by reading the introductory section in paper #2, which is a three page encapsulation of paper #1.  Overall, this introductory section of paper #2 is the best point entry to understanding my recent research.  I am happy to answer questions or engage in discussions online.
Best to all,

March 17, 2013

My first published paper “Why Baryons Are Yang-Mills Magnetic Monopoles” at Hadronic Journal, Volume 35, Number 4, 399-467 (2012)

My first paper “Why Baryons Are Yang-Mills Magnetic Monopoles” has now been published in Hadronic Journal, Volume 35, Number 4, 399-467 (2012). Though the Hadronic Journal has not yet put this issue online, I have a hardcopy of this and have uploaded a scan at the link below:

Hadronic Journal, Volume 35, Number 4, 399-467 (2012)

As I have advised on some earlier blog entries, I have two more accepted papers which will be published next month (April 2013) in the Journal of Modern Physics, Special Issue on High Energy Physics.


December 31, 2012

New Paper: Predicting the Binding Energies of the 1s Nuclides with High Precision, Based on Baryons which are Yang-Mills Magnetic Monopoles

Dear Friends:
I wanted to let you all know that I just posted a new paper, which you can review at the link below:
The abstract is as follows:
We employ the thesis that baryons are Yang-Mills magnetic monopoles to predict the binding energies of the alpha 4He nucleus to less than four parts in one million, of the 3He helion nucleus to less than four parts in 100,000, and of the 3H triton nucleus to less than seven parts in one million, all in AMU.  Of special import, we exactly relate the neutron–proton mass difference – which pervades all aspects of nuclear physics and beta decay – to a function of the up quark, down quark, and electron masses, which in turn enables us to predict the binding energy for the 2H deuteron nucleus most precisely of all, to just over 8 parts in ten million.  The thesis that Baryons are Yang-Mills magnetic monopoles thereby appears to have ample, indeed irrefutable empirical confirmation, establishes a basis for finally “decoding” the mass of known data regarding nuclear masses and binding energies, and may lay the foundation for technologically realizing the theoretical promise of nuclear fusion.
I have also submitted this for journal publication, and hope that this will become my second journal-published paper.  The first one as I have advised previously has already been accepted and will be released any day now.
I welcome your comments, as always.
Time to go party!  Happy new year to all!

December 13, 2012

Accepted for Publication: Why Baryons Are Yang-Mills Magnetic Monopoles!

I am very pleased to report that the paper linked below, “Why Baryons Are Yang-Mills Magnetic Monopoles,” has been accepted for publication in Number 4, Volume 35, 2012 pp 401-468 of the Hadronic Journal.  This is due to be released in early January, 2013.

Why Baryons Are Yang-Mills Magnetic Monopoles Final for Publication

As you can see from elsewhere in this blog and in my various newsgroup posts, I have been advocating since 2005, the view that protons and neutrons and other baryons are Yang-Mills magnetic monopoles.  In this paper, I have finally developed the empirical proof, by predicting nuclear binding energies between such monopoles which accord with empirical binding data within a fraction of a percent, and by explaining how the nuclear binding energies relate to the energies which confine quarks within their respective nucleons.

If you want to start somewhere other than at the beginning, go to page 61 where you will see how I derive the up and down quark masses to six digit in MeV accuracy based on the electron rest mass and the deuteron binding energy, and where I show a predicted maximum available binding energy for ^56Fe of 493.028394 MeV.  The empirical data show that this nucleus has an empirical binding energy of 492.253892 MeV, which means that ^56Fe utilizes 99.8429093% of the energy predicted to be available, for actual binding.  The remaining 0.16% is used to continue to confine quarks within the nucleons that comprise ^56Fe, and this utilization of available binding energy is the maximum among all of the known nuclei, and sets the boundary between fusion and fission physics.

I believe that this will become big news as this work gains exposure and people begin to see what problems have been solved here.

Happy holidays to all!


June 20, 2012

Might Baryons be Yang-Mills Magnetic Monopoles?

If you have followed my blog the past few years or been a participant sci.physics.foundations, you will know that since early 2007 I have been advocating that baryons are Yang-Mills magnetic monopoles, hiding in plain sight.   Now, finally, I have developed rigorous mathematical proof of this, and it is in a paper you may read at:

2012 Baryon Paper Final

The equation which encapsulates the entire thesis, is (8.1), and I have copied it below into this post.  Now you can read the paper, see how I got to (8.1), and understand exactly what this equation is saying about nuclear physics.


May 24, 2012

Baryons and Confinement; Exact Quantum Yang Mills Propagators; Mass Gap

To all:

I have started work on physics again this last month after two years “sabbatical.”  I am also again working with my friend Andrej Inopin.

In particular, I am touching up a paper that I was working on in 2008 which shows that baryons are simply magnetic charges in a non-Abelian (Yang Mills) gauge theory, and shows how confinement phenomena are a natural outgrowth of the properties of these “magnetic charge baryons.”  This paper is linked at:

Now, in returning to this paper after several years, I have always known that my equation (3.5) in the above was a “shortcut” to get to the results  afterwards, because it relies upon an analogy from QED and does not fully develop propagators / inverses for Yang-Mills theory.

This is because back in 2008, I did not know how to quantize Yang-Mill theory and obtain exact propagators that embody all of the non-linearity that comes from Yang-Mills.  Nobody knew / knows how to do this.  That is why people still use perturbation theory even though it breaks up the gauge invariance of Yang-Mills, or use lattice gauge theory even though it breaks up Lorentz symmetry and they have to calculate numerically on computers rather than analytically.  These are “compromises” that everybody uses because exact Yang-Mills quantization solutions simply are not known to date.

But in the last several weeks, I returned to this problem that had been a roadblock for me in 2008, and have now solved it!   The link below is the current version of a paper I have written in the last two weeks which contains this solution.

Sections 2 and 3 in the above just link replace the “shortcut” of (3.5) in the previous link further up this page.  Section 4 shows that the perturbation which is an important object in this theory actually transforms just like a GRAVITATIONAL field.  I write this with the view that this is a possible path to non-Abelian quantum gravity, but am reserving judgment on this and would like to hear other views.  But what I think is unmistakable is that this shows that gauge transformations in the perturbation — which might be reason to doubt using this perturbation to calculate invariant numbers — are equivalent to no more and no less that plain old general coordinate transformations.  In essence, the perturbation combines several dot products which alone are not invariant, but which together, are.

The work in this paper lays the foundation and provides the calculating machinery for solving the “mass gap” problem.  I will continue developing this in the week ahead, but I have enough already that I wanted to share.

April 4, 2009

Starting a new paper on Baryons and Confinement

Today, I began work on a new paper dealing with the Yang-Mills foundations of baryons and QCD confinement.  The first draft is linked below, and I will provide updates as they develop.

Yang-Mills Foundations of Baryons and Confinement Phenomena

I may get diverted a bit by my US tax filing the next few days, and I am quite busy at work right now so this will mostly be a weekend and after-midnight project, but I do hope to get this paper, which I hope will synthesize many individual insights I have had and subjects I have studied over the past several years, into a something of value for others.

Constructive comments are always appreciated.

Thanks to the Princess and Peter and Ken and Igor and Ben for feedback and insights posted on the various newsgroups.


February 7, 2008

Lab Note 3, Part 2: Unification of Particle, Nuclear and Atomic Phenomonology

This lab note will be brief.

On April 28, 2007, I posted a paper which went from baryons and confinement to strings to particle phenomenology to atomic physics and deuterons and a whole range of phenomenology including fermion generation replication which appeared to lend itself to a common, underlying explanation based on the work I have previously discussed with respect to baryons and confinement in particular.  The underlying thread throughout, is to connect spacetime symmetry to internal symmetry using the Pauli fermionic exclusion principle.   I am afraid, however, that this paper may have been buried amidst all of the other postings, so I want to specifically call it to your attention, at the link below:

On The Natural Origin of Baryons, Short-Range Mesons, and QCD Confinement, from Maxwell’s Magnetic Equations for a Yang-Mills Field

In the spirit of “Lab Notes” which are a scientific diary of theoretical explorations, I ask you in particular to look at the second half of this paper, starting at section 6.  In football, there is something known as a “Hail Mary” pass where the quarterback throws the ball all the way down the field hoping for a touchdown.  The second half of the above paper is just that.  While certainly speculative, it seems to me that this ties together a very diverse range of observable phenomenology which has not previously been tied together.   It is probably the most audacious piece of physics writing I have done, and I don’t want it to get lost in the shuffle.

So, if nothing comes of it, so be it.  But, it may well be that someone in the end zone will catch this long pass, and physics will come to rest in a different place from where it rests today.  That is why it is so important to take good lab notes!

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